# 4D Balloon Theory Outline

4D Balloon Theory is an extension of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. This theory does not challenge Einstein's mathematical model but instead challenges Einstein's description of physical reality based on a flaw in the translation of the Theory of Relativity from mathematical model to descriptive model. That flaw is the term "dimension."

The 4D Balloon Theory (4DBT) has to describe everything that Einstein's Theory of Relativity has touched because Relativity's flaw ruins just about every description of physical reality it tries to explain. Thus, 4DBT must be a large theory covering a wide spread of topics due to the subject matter involved.

The 4D Balloon Theory Outline breaks the process of presenting the descriptive model of physical reality into four sections:

1. The description of the expansion of the universe.

The process of expansion is, without a doubt, the strangest and most otherworldly phenomenon in the universe and the accurate description of this phenomenon is neglected due to its difficulty. That difficulty is due, in part, to the flaw in Relativity. The other part of the reason the strangeness of expansion is neglected is the actual difficulty of the subject matter.

2. The Definition of Dimension

The term dimension, under Relativity, is problematic. The mathematical definition of the term is well understood. However, that definition cannot be used to describe physical reality and a physical definition of the term "dimension" has not been created and cannot be created under the present conditions within the standard model. In this section of the outline these problems are resolved creating new problems.

3. The Four Dimensional (4D) Description of Our Universe

Our universe must exist as the three dimensional surface of a four dimensional object which exists in a four dimensional space outside our universe. The true nature of our universe can only be studied as a surface. This section of the theory (as described in this outline) does exactly that.

4. Description of the Effects of Four Dimensional Reality on the Universe

The expansion of the universe is caused by a force of four dimensional origin (outside our universe) working upon our universe. This fact has many interesting implications and valuable explanatory power.

## 1. The Expansion of the Universe: An Otherworldly Phenomenon

According to the Big Bang Theory, the Universe is expanding. However, if you think that "The Big Bang" is a good name for the phenomenon that is happening to the Universe, then you do not understand the Expansion of the Universe because the name evokes the impression of an explosion of motion on the part of matter, the stuff of the universe. In reality, not a single atom of matter in the entire universe has moved so much as a nano-meter due to the power of the Big Bang in the entire existence of the Universe. Every single single particle that ever existed presently occupies the same location in the universe that it did at the moment of the "Big Bang" and it will forever occupy that location because:

The Big Bang Theory describes a universe at rest, devoid of meaningful motion.

How can this be? How can the Universe be expanding without anything moving?

I did say that the expansion of the universe is the strangest phenomenon in the Universe.

The "HOW" cannot be answered yet because the conceptual framework has not been built yet. That will happen in later sections and is the door through which you will be introduced to the Fourth Dimension as the shortcomings of Relativity and the Standard Model are revealed.

In this section, the expansion of the Universe will be described in accordance with both the Standard Model and 4DBT. The Standard Model's description of expansion is fairly accurate, though its explanation of the cause of expansion is laughably wrong.

### 1.1 The Origin Story of Expansion

1. The light from all distant objects in the universe is red-shifted.
2. If the red-shift is caused by the Doppler Effect, then the entire universe is moving away from the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG)
3. If (2) then:
1. The MWG is at the center of the universe because everything in every direction is moving away.
2. The universe is not expanding because why would it be? As we will find out soon, we only believe the universe is expanding because we do not believe that everything is moving away from the MWG.
3. The Copernican Principle is violated.
4. Scientists hated (3).
5. Hubble came up with an alternative hypothesis: The red-shift is caused by the metric expansion of the universe.
6. The metric expansion of the universe translates to the idea that the volume of the universe is increasing. This idea has some interesting consequences.
1.

### 1.2 Identical Cubes

1. The Universe is Isotropic. This means that the universe looks the same no matter what direction we look. There is no special or interesting direction in space that looks different from the other directions in space.
2. The universe is Homogeneous. This means that all of the universe is basically the same and that if you selected a sufficiently large cubic volume of the Universe, it would be effectively identical to any other cubic volume of the universe of that size with the same number of galaxies, the same types of galaxies, and roughly the same number of stars of every type.
3. The the Milky Way Galaxy is at the center of a cube of the universe 1000 mega-parsecs (mpc) to a side. Call this the Local Cube.
4. If you define the z axis as the direction perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG) and the y axis as the direction of the line between our star (Sol) and the center of the MWG, the you can create a coordinate system of the universe for the moment of 1320 Pacific Time on June 12, 2018. The boundaries of our Local Cube can be easily defined in this context.
5. The universe is full of these cubes, 1000 mpc to a side. Each Billion (10003) Cubic Mega-Parsec Cube (BCMC) is identical to our Local Cube (LC) The exact number of BCMCs in the universe is unknown, but the majority of scientists believe that the universe contains an infinite number of these BCMCs meaning that the universe has infinite mass and infinite volume.
6. Every one of the many (possibly infinite) BCMCs in the universe are identical to our LC.
7. We can study the entire universe by studying our LC and then picturing copies of the LC throughout the universe.

### 1.3 The Story of the Cubes

The volume of every cube is increasing but nothing is moving into or out of the cubes. Everything is exactly where it has always been based on the coordinate system of the cube. It is difficult to imagine the volume of the entire universe increasing, but it is easy to imagine the volume of a cube increasing. If you add the concept of an expanding cube to the concept of a universe filled with these cubes, you get the expansion of the universe.

Once, each BCMC was very small and the matter in each cube occupied 100% of the smace within each cube. That means that at one point the Local Cube had no empty space at all and was completely full of matter. Nothing could move because there was no space to move in. The situation in the universe was just stuff everywhere. The Big Bang is simply the process of space coming into existence within the cube. Nothing ever moved due to anything except the four known forces (Strong, Weak, Electro-Magnetic, and Gravity).

### 1.4 The Balloon Analogy

The Balloon analogy is perfect. Educators often use the analogy but add the caveat that is is not perfect. I say is is perfect and that the scientific community cannot prove me wrong because they cannot talk about the analogy with any detail for lack of vocabulary.