The best way to describe Fourth Dimension (4D) Theory is with three separate stages. The first is a discussion of the definition of the term "dimension" and the implications of that definition. The second is a discussion about the topology (shape) of the universe as discovered by Einstein and modeled in his General Theory of Relativity. The third stage is a discussion of the expansion of the universe and what that looks like from within the universe and from outside the universe.

The following is an outline of these three stages of description. Each bullet point will be elaborated upon further in a new page and become a link to that page.

- There is presently no definition for the term "dimension" where the term describes physical reality. Edwin Abbot wrote a brilliant book called Flatland which uses the term "dimension" to describe physical reality (in many cases a two dimensional fictional reality) and in his book the term is used around 90 times. There is no definition in Webster or dictionary.com that defines this term.
**Dimension (noun): A type of direction where each direction of this type points away from (is perpendicular to, shares no vector component with) every other direction of this type.**- Note: A dimension is a direction in physical reality. This puts limitations on the term not found in the mathematical definition of "dimension".
- What is the Fourth Dimension?
*A direction pointing away from three other dimensions.* - How does time fit into this definition?
*It doesn't. There is no physical definition of the term "dimension" where it is possible to define time as a dimension because this definition does not allow for non-spatial dimensions.*(This is probably why Edwin Abbot did not define the term but rather described it extensively.) - Dimensional (adjective): Having some number of dimensions.
- Space: An N dimensional space is one where objects in that space have N dimensions of freedom of motion. (For Example: Air molecules in my room have 3 dimensions of freedom of motion.)
- Object: An N dimensional object has extension (occupies space) in N dimensions. (For Example: Mario from the original arcade game has two dimensions of extension and cannot occupy volume in 3D space.
- An N dimensional object does not exist in (N + 1) dimensional space because it does not extend
*into*that space. - An N dimensional object cannot influence an (N + 1) dimensional object because it does not exist (takes up zero space) relative to that object.
- An N dimensional object cannot exist naturally in (N + 1) dimensional space because its particles would scatter into the (N + 1)th direction unless contained by an external influence.
- The Surface of an Object is the only N dimensional thing in an (N + 1) dimensional space so if there is an N dimensional object in that space, then it must be limited to a surface in some way.
- If Reality is 4D and our universe is 3D, then our universe exists on the surface of a 4D object.
- Mass in our universe influences (dents, curves) the surface of the 4D object (according to Einstein) which means that mass in our universe is NOT 3D. Mass must be 4D or it could not dent the surface.
**Conclusion: Our universe is made of 4D particles interacting mostly in 3D because they are confined to the surface of a 4D object.**

**Einstein discovered that the presence of mass curves space (dents the universe in a direction away from the natural lay of the universe.)**- This picture of curved space, like all pictures of curved space, is poorly conceived because it depicts a 3D object in 3D space as a 3D object in 2D space. This is stupid and as soon as I get the funding I will commission an illustration identical to this one but with the Earth depicted as a 2D cross-section with the core exposed and itself dented (not on a plane).
- Note: A dent in a flat surface distorts the dented area in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the surface. This requires a force in the direction perpendicular to the surface.
- Note: The "natural lay of the universe" is a term I coined to describe flat space. If the universe contained no mass, then it would be flat in three dimensions. Any deviation from the "natural lay of the universe" must occur in the direction of a fourth dimension.
**If the presence of mass makes a dent in space in a direction perpendicular to the Natural Lay of the Universe (NLU) (flat 3D space) the implications are both profoundly impactful on our understanding of Reality, and criminally under-explored by modern physics.**

- The image to the left depicts a wormhole as conceived by Einstein and others. In this image, the green grid represents the plane of the universe. The only part of this picture that is the universe is that green grid.
- Everything outside the green grid is a place outside the universe. Note that the green grid is depicted as a flat plane that takes up zero volume with respect to the place outside out universe.
- The concept of the wormhole illustrates the fact that modern physics, from Einstein until today, has always believed that Physical Reality is a four dimensional place and that our universe exists within that four dimensional place.
**Reality is a four dimensional space.**- If Reality is a four dimensional space, then it is populated by four dimensional objects (or at least one 4D object because our universe exists.)
- If Reality is a 4D space, then objects (particles) within that space have four dimensions of freedom of motion.
- Why do we not have four dimensions of freedom of motion?
*Because we are limited to the surface of a 4D object.* - Our universe is not infinite. If it were is would bisect all of 4D space which is kind of absurd and which violates the Copernican principle. The Copernican principle states that the Earth (or the solar system, galaxy, local super-cluster, universe, or you) does not occupy a special location in Reality. This means that if 4D reality exists, our universe is not at the center of that space.
- The 4D Object (4DO) that provides the surface that is our universe, is a hyper-sphere in shape because the universe is homogeneous. This means that any given volume of the universe of a large enough size (a cubic giga-parsec should be sufficient) at one location is practically identical to that volume of universe at another location. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation supports the conclusion that the universe is homogeneous. If the universe has any other shape than a hyper-sphere, then the CMBR would show variations in matter density as the universe expanded.
- If the universe exists on the surface of a 4DO then wormholes cannot exist because the concept of a wormhole implies that the universe exists on the surface of an isolated ribbon floating through the void. Still, the fact that gravity dents space is sufficient evidence of a 4D Reality.
- If the universe exists on the surface of a 4DO then the fourth dimension, relative to that surface, points toward the interior of the object and away from the surface of that object. Let's designate the direction toward the center of the 4DO
**IN**(toward the inside of the object) and**DOWN**(when depicting the surface as a plane.) Let's designate the direction away from the center of the 4DO**OUT**(from the object) and**UP**(from the surface.) The**OUT/UP**aspect of the 4th dimension (relative to the plane of the universe) is positive and the**IN/DOWN**can be designated negative. - Mass dents space into the surface of the 4DO.
- This means that there is an
*effect*which acts upon mass in the direction away from (perpendicular to) the universe. Modern physics ascribes this effect to something internal to our universe but this seems absurd. Something outside the universe is acting upon mass. - Mass applies a
*force*upon the surface of the 4DO which dents it in the**IN**direction. This force is proportional to the mass of the object denting the surface because higher mass objects create deeper dents. - Newton's Third Law states: "For every action there is an equal and opposite action." In the case of the force causing mass to dent the surface of the 4DO
**IN**, it seems that this for is the reaction to space applying a force upon mass in the**OUT**direction. This will be explored in the next segment: The Expansion of the Universe.

- As Hubble discovered decades ago, the universe is expanding. However, physics has long failed to adequately describe how
*strange*that expansion appears to us. - As Hubble discovered, the red-shift of distant galaxies does not mean they are moving away from the Milky Way. Rather, space is coming into existence throughout the universe increasing the volume of the universe and stretching the wavelength of any light traveling through space in proportion with the TIME that light has existed.
- The expansion of the universe involves literally zero motion of objects within our universe. Every particle that exists today occupies the same coordinate that it occupied at the time of the big bang.
- Due to the fact that the expansion of the universe does not move matter, physics cannot really talk about this expansion. According to dictionary.com, Physics is "the science that deal with matter, energy, motion, and force." However, the expansion of the universe does nothing to matter, causes no motion, applies no force, and uses no energy. Thus, it is impossible for modern physics to meaningfully discuss the expansion of the universe.
- The only way to describe the expansion of the universe is with a balloon. The surface of the balloon is depicted as the surface of the universe and super clusters the universe are depicted as discrete objects as seen here.
- When cosmologists use the balloon analogy, they are usually quick to say that it is only an analogy and that they don't think the universe is shaped like a sphere (or hyper-sphere.)
- I argue that the reason the balloon analogy is the only one that works is because it is correct.
- In the balloon analogy, our universe is the surface of the balloon. Anything outside the balloon or inside the balloon, and the direction perpendicular to the surface are simply ignored by modern physics. This is a shame because accounting for the fourth dimension answers many questions.
- The expansion of the universe occurs in the direction away from our universe. This means that the motion of matter due to expansion is never in the direction of the universe.
- Imagine that the balloon is the 4D Object (4DO) on which the universe exists. There is a force within the balloon acting upon the surface pushing it in the OUT direction at some acceleration. This acceleration is happening throughout the universe and has been since the dawn of time. Call this force upon the 4DO the
**OUTFORCE**. - The surface then accelerates outward but where there is mass upon the surface, it encounters resistance due to inertia, which creates a dent in space. This effect is the same as the one that makes you put a dent in the back of your seat when you accelerate your car.
- The inertial response to the
**OUTFORCE**is perceived as an**INFORCE**toward the center of the 4DO. This**INFORCE**has two consequences. - First, as mentioned before, the
**INFORCE**accelerates mass in the direction perpendicular to the natural lay of the universe. This creates a dent in space but does not move the object*through*space. - Second, once one mass dents space, the
*space*is no longer perpendicular to the**INFORCE**. At this point there is a component of the acceleration of the**OUTFORCE**in the direction of the universe. This is identical to the effect of a ramp on Earth. On a flat surface, the acceleration of gravity does not make a ball move through space. However, on an angle the force of gravity will operate in the direction of the surface in proportion to the angle of the surface. - Gravity is the component of the
**INFORCE**operating in the direction of our universe. - One interesting consequence of this hypothesis is a cap on the force of gravity. As you incline a surface on Earth, a ball on that surface will experience a force equal to its mass times some percentage of the acceleration of gravity. Once that surface is perpendicular to Earth's surface, the ball experiences 100% of the acceleration of gravity and cannot experience further acceleration from gravity.
- Conclusion: The
**expansion of the universe**causes both the dents in space in the presence of mass, and the acceleration of gravity experienced by objects in those dents in space. Gravity certainly cannot slow down the expansion of the universe.

- Imagine the universe as the surface of a balloon. Now zoom into the surface of the balloon and draw a grid. Each square in the grid represents a cube of space in our universe.
- As you blow up the balloon, the relative positions of all points on the grid remain the same meaning that things do not move around the surface of the balloon as you blow it up. This is because the direction of motion due to expansion happens in the direction away from the grid.
- The volume of ever square on the grid (and thus cube of space in our universe) is increasing as the surface area of the balloon increases.
- If you draw a galaxy on the surface of the balloon, that galaxy expands with the balloon maintaining a consistent volume ration of occupied space to unoccupied space within the universe. This does not happen in the universe. Rather, the ratio of occupied space to unoccupied space has been decreasing from the beginning of time (ever since it was possible to have such a thing as unoccupied space. How?
- Imagine you are a bacteria driving a little bacteria sized car along the surface of the balloon as it expands. You could drive forever toward an object on the grid and never arrive because the distance between you and the object increases as you drive. If your speed (distance per second) toward the object was the same as the increase in distance per second due to expansion, then you would be at a state of equilibrium.
- In reality, gravitationally bound systems don't work exactly like this because gravity creates an acceleration so your speed toward the gravity source would be ever increasing. However,
*orbiting*objects can experience a constant velocity vector in the direction of the gravity source. - Thus, objects in the universe do not expand with space because they are in motion with respect to the grid in the direction of the center of gravity in any gravitationally bound system.
- Note: When calculating motion in our universe on any scale, to be perfectly accurate you must use a coordinate system that is expanding with the universe. This is because two points getting farther apart due to the expansion of the universe are not moving through the universe. Each is sitting still in space while expansion moves it perpendicular to the surface of the universe and the reason for the increasing distance is the fact that, on the surface of a hyper-sphere, the direction away from the natural lay of the surface will be different at any two points.

This model diverges from the Standard Model of Cosmology in a few other notable ways.

**The universe did not start as a singularity.**A singularity is a math idea that doesn't work in real life. The universe did start out very small which is how CMBR was created. However, our universe is the surface of the 4DO and the 4DO never had a surface area of zero because that doesn't happen in real life.**The expansion of the universe is not caused by the momentum from the Big Bang.**Momentum is a thing that happens to matter. The expansion of the universe is a thing that is happening to space that, frankly, does not involve matter (besides the creation of gravity.)**Dark energy is not a thing.**The force expanding the universe comes from outside the universe. Dark energy is postulated to exist within the universe. These ideas are incompatible.

According to 4D Theory, Reality is a four dimensional place populated by four dimensional objects. Our universe is on the surface of one such object. The phenomena that are hardest to understand intuitively are caused by forces from outside our universe. The greatest obstacle to the evolution of the Standard Model is the belief that Time is the fourth dimension.

This model is more than one hypothesis. It attempts to take the mathematical model of modern physics and put a completely new interpretation on that model.

It will take some effort to convince the world that this model is correct, but it is my life's mission to accomplish that task. Even if I fail that mission in my lifetime, I hope my children or grandchildren will see the day that my model is justified, because I cannot believe that humanity will tolerate much longer a science where the equations of mathematicians are taken as concrete evidence superior to common sense and intuitive reasoning.

There will always be an honored place in physics for mathematics. It will be mathematicians who turn my description into a mathematical model and my model will probably not be fully accepted as science until that happens. However, as descriptive reasoning is no replacement for mathematics, so too mathematics is no replacement for descriptive reasoning and I hope that the physics, as a field of discovery, will accept that sooner rather than later.

There are thee main mathematical puzzles that will be created by the acceptance of this model into the field of physics:

- The creation of a model of physics with four spatial dimensions.
- Time dilation (more on that later.)
- The application of string theory mathematics to 4D Theory.

I hope this is just the beginning of an exciting journey during this, the next scientific revolution in physics!