# Chapter 2: The Hand Grenade Universe (Doppler Model)

Begin with the Premise: There Exists an Explanation for Universal Red Shift (EURS).

Every apparent shift in the wavelength of a wave is caused by something. This includes the Universal Red Shift. Something is causing the red shift of the light of all the distant objects in the universe and this creates an opportunity, because there are only a few things that could cause the red shift in the pattern we see. This means that we can analyze only a few models of the universe to figure out which one best corresponds to our universe.

Each of the different models that describe a universe with Universal Red Shift (URS) is extremely different with different. In this paper we will focus on the three best models. The subject of this chapter is the Doppler Model which explains the red shift using relative motion. In the next chapter we will explore the two main metric models which explain the red shift using the metric expansion of the universe in one case, and the metric contraction of matter in the other case.

The Doppler Effect Explanation for Universal Red Shift (DEEURS)

In astronomy most red-shifts are caused by the Doppler Effect.

Definition: The Doppler Effect (DE)

The Doppler Effect is a change in the Observed Frequency (OF) of a wave due to relative motion between the emission source at the Time of Emission and the observer at the Moment of Observation. (TBC)

Definition: Relative Motion (RM)

The simple definition is that Relative Motion is the case where two objects are moving away from each other.

The more complicated definition is as follows: In a shared frame of reference, if the velocity vector component of two objects along the line between the two objects are not the same, then it is a case of relative motion where the difference in velocity magnitude in the vector component along the line connecting the two objects is the magnitude of the relative motion.

The definition of relative motion accepted by the Standard Model is that Relative motion happens when the distance between two objects changes. The purpose of the first half of this paper is to show that this definition of relative motion is incorrect when applied to cosmological scales of volume (and is technically incorrect on all scales of volume.)

The Doppler Effect (DE) (Continued)

Imagine sitting in an emergency vehicle while the siren is sounding. The siren is continually going off in the area somewhere over your head. The sound of that siren would stay the same because your relative motion with respect to the siren is zero (0) distance per time.

Now imagine that you are standing next to the road as the emergency vehicle with its siren passes you. As that siren moves toward you, it is emitting sound in the form of compression waves in the air. These waves travel at the speed of sound and the speed of the vehicle does not change the speed of the sound waves. As the siren moves through the air, it vibrates the air some number of times per second while also traveling at some distance per second. Because it is moving while emitting sound, the wavelength of the sound waves are compressed in the direction of motion of the siren and expanded in the opposite direction. This is a modification of the wave at the time of emission. The wave itself is different in one direction due to the velocity of the siren.

As you sit watching the vehicle approach, you hear the siren at a higher pitch than you would if you were sitting in the vehicle because the wave peaks are closer together in front of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes, the pitch of the sound drops due to the fact that between emitting each wave peak the vehicle moves a little distance away increasing the distance between he peaks (EW) resulting in a lower number of peaks hitting your eardrum per second (OF).

This change in the observed frequency of a wave due to the motion of the emission source is part of the Doppler Effect.

Now imagine there is an emergency vehicle on the side of the road with its siren going and you drive past the siren. The actual sound waves emitted by the siren all have the same Emission Wavelength (EW) in every direction because the siren is not moving with respect to the air. Thus the characteristics of all the waves leaving the siren are identical. However, you are moving with respect to the wave. After one wave peak hits your ear drum you move a little closer to the next peak increasing the number of peaks absorbed by your eardrum per second (OF).

This is a change in the observed frequency of a wave due to the motion of the observer and is also part of the Doppler Effect.

A moving emission source changes the signal by changing the EW. A moving observer changes the number of observed wave peaks per second. However, as long as there is relative velocity between the observer and the emission source at the time of emission, the net result is a change in observed frequency (red or blue shift) due to the Doppler Effect.

Note: The activities of both the emission source and the observer have no impact on the observed frequency during the travel time of the wave. All that matters is the EW at the time of emission and the velocity of the observer with respect to the wave itself at the time of observation. If a photon has been travelling for 12 million years and at the last minute the observer matches velocity (vector along the line between them) with the emission source at the time of emission, then the relative velocity between the emitter at the time of emission and the observer at the time of observation will be zero (0) distance per time and there will be no Doppler Effect to shift the frequency of the photon.

Logic: Relative Motion and Doppler Effect

If there is Relative Motion (RM) between the emission source of a wave at the time of emission and the observer at the time of observation, then there is a Doppler Effect (DE).

1.      If RM then DE

If there is a Doppler Effect (DE) then there is Relative Motion (RM).

2.      If DE then RM

3.      DE IFF RM

Relative motion and the Doppler Effect always go together by definition. If two objects are in perpetual relative motion away from each other, then photons traveling from one object to the other will be red-shifted by the Doppler Effect. If the photons traveling from one object to the other are red shifted by the Doppler Effect, then the two objects are in motion away from each other (if their relative velocities were constant.)

The Doppler Effect Model (DEEURS) [Continued]

The Doppler Effect Model is by far the easiest to understand because nothing strange is happening to space and matter. It is just the case of matter in motion.

Imagine a hand grenade thrown in space. You pull the pin, throw the grenade, and then duck behind something. The grenade explodes sending bits flying in every direction. That should be fairly easy to picture in your mind because it is a bunch of physical objects moving away from a point in space. We could calculate the speed at which the bits are flying away using the Doppler Effect and then figure out where we are in the general explosion.

However, if the Doppler Model is the case there is a problem because we are not just one bit of debris out of many flying away from a central point. The red-shift of all distant objects is isotropic and in a hand grenade model of the universe, the only point at which the red shift would appear isotropic is the very center of the whole thing. The origin point. The point of explosion.

Observation: The Universal Red Shift is IsotropicDefinition: Isotropic

Isotropic means “Identical in all directions; invariant with respect to direction.

Isotropy is the case where everything in every direction appears the same. In the case of the universe, this means that we see the same distributions of matter in every direction with respect to things like galaxies, galaxy clusters, nebulae, etc. No matter where we look, the stuff we see will resemble the stuff we see in any other direction.

Furthermore, the red shifts of objects in every direction appear the same in the case of isotropy. If an object is some distance away from us in one direction (x), it will have some red shift (y). All other objects that are distance (x) away from us will also have a red shift of (y).

If the universe appears isotropic from our perspective, all other matter in the universe (outside of our galactic supercluster) is moving away from us.

Doppler Model (Continued)

If the entire universe is in relative motion away from the Milky Way, then the Milky Way is the center of the universe. In that case the universe appears to be expanding like shrapnel from a hand grenade away from Earth.

Scientists don’t like the implication that the Milky Way Galaxy is the center of the universe because it violates the Copernican Principle

Definition: The Copernican Principle

The Copernican Principle states that humans do not occupy a special place in the universe.

If we (our supercluster) are at the center of the universe, then we are at a very special point in the universe. The probability of us being located at that point by accident seems absurdly low. If we are at the center of the universe, then it would seem reasonable to assume that we were placed at that special spot on purpose, and by someone.

The Catholic Church once believed that the earth was the center of the universe and persecuted anyone who said different. Copernicus championed the idea that the Sun was the center of our solar system and that the Earth revolved around the Sun. He was persecuted for this belief by the Catholic Church, but now we know that he was correct. The Copernican Principle was created in honor of Copernicus.

The Copernican Principle is more scientific faith than scientific fact. The scientific community believes in the Copernican Principle because they want to believe it. However, the entire scientific community would be very uncomfortable if the Copernican Principle were violated. If some bit of evidence (such as URS) points to a theory that will violate the Copernican Principle scientists will make the effort to find an alternate theory which will not violate the principle.

Doppler Effect Model (Continued)

If the Universal Red Shift (URS) is cause by the Doppler Effect and thus by relative motion, then our supercluster is at the center of the universe and this has some interesting consequences besides just breaking the Copernican Principle.

If we are at the center of a hand grenade universe, then we (our supercluster) are completely motionless with respect to the universe. Under normal circumstances a red shift due to relative motion can be caused by either the motion of the observer or motion by the emitter. In our case we could not be in motion because the red shift is equal on ever side only from the point of the explosion and we are still at that point. We have not moved from that point and if we move from that point then the universe will no longer appear isotropic.

Logic: The Doppler Model

If the Doppler Effect is the Explanation for the Universal Red Shift (DEEURS), then there is Universal Relative Motion (URM) (and all distant objects in the universe are in motion away from us). If the URS is not caused by the Doppler Effect then there is no URM (meaning the distant objects in the universe are not in motion because where there is motion, there is Doppler Effect.)

4.      If DEEURS => URM

5.      If ~DEEURS => ~URM

If the Doppler Effect Explanation for Universal Red Shift (DEEURS) is correct and if the universe is Isotropic (I) from our perspective, then we are at the Center of the Universe (CU) and the Copernican Principle (CP) is false and we are Motionless with Respect to the Universe (MRC).

6.      If DEEURS & I => CU & ~CP & MRC

7.      I (given based on observation)

8.      If DEEURS => CU & ~CP & MRC