There have been two scientific revolutions in physics which drastically altered the way humans as a species understand our universe.

**Issac Newton**taught the world about forces and showed that the force which drops an apple from a tree to the ground is the same force that keeps the Moon orbiting the Earth.**Albert Einstein**brought the world a mathematical model of the geometry of space and showed how that geometry affected time.

I will bring the world the other half of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and use Einsteins' discoveries, along with some intuitive reasoning, to describe Reality and the place of our universe within that reality.

As of this writing, most people believe that our universe has already been described by Einstein and the century of physicists who followed. That belief is incorrect.

My name is Tim Patry. I do not have a degree in physics. I have no academic achievements to speak of. All I have is an interest in the concept of dimensions and a stubborn need to understand the universe. It turn out, that is enough.

There is a flaw in Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Einstein, and the century of physicists that followed, never defined the term "dimension" in physical terms. This meant that any time he used the term to describe reality he was using an undefined term and this lead to incorrect conclusions.

Einstein's mathematical model seems to work perfectly. I take no issue with the Theory of Relativity insofar as the math is concerned. Furthermore, the Theory of Relativity has been used to form a great many insights into the nature of our universe that will stand the coming scientific revolution. All credit where credit is due.

However, it is now time to move forward and add an improved description of physical Reality to Einstein's mathematical model. I call it Fourth Dimension Theory.

Fourth Dimension Theory (4DT) begins with the definition of the term "dimension". It is not really my own definition because it is the intuitive definition of the term we all form after some thought on the subject. If anyone should get credit, I think it should be Edwin Abbot for his book __Flatland__ which describes the concept of a dimension exhaustively without defining the term formally.

Using this definition of the term "dimension", 4DT comes to the following conclusions:

- Time is not the fourth dimension because there is no physical definition of the term "dimension" which allows for non-spatial dimensions. Time appears to be a dimension in Relativity due to a happy coincidence.
- Minkowski space (space with a time dimension) is not a thing in physical reality.
- Time dilation can be explained another way.
- Reality is a four dimensional space populated by four dimensional objects. Our universe exists on the surface of one of those objects. The shape of that object is a hyper-sphere.
- There is a force that acts upon
**SPACE**(the surface of the hyper-sphere) accelerating it in the direction perpendicular to the natural lay of the universe and away from the center of the hyper-sphere. I call it the**OUTFORCE**. - Accelerating space acts upon matter accelerating it in the direction away from the center of the hyper-sphere. Each mass resists the acceleration (Newton's 3rd law) due to inertia and dents the surface of the hyper-sphere in proportion to its mass. I call this 3rd Law reaction of mass to the acceleration of the universe the
**INFORCE**. - The normal lay of the universe is perpendicular to the line between the surface of the hyper-sphere and its center. Therefore an isolated mass would experience a force in the direction perpendicular to the universe and would not move through the universe.
- The lay of the universe is dented inwards in proportion to the mass at any given point. Gravity is the vector component of the
**INFORCE**that operates in the direction of our universe. This puts a cap on the force of gravity equal to 100% of the**INFORCE**times the mass of the object. (Both the**INFORCE**and the**OUTFORCE**are accelerations rather than forces.) - The particles with mass are made out of four dimensional matter. Particles without mass exist as waves in the three dimensional surface of the four dimensional hyper-sphere.
- The speed of light is the speed at which a vibration in the surface of the universe travels. (If this speed is based on the tension in the surface of the hyper-sphere and if the tension in the surface of the hyper-sphere has been increasing as it expands, then the speed of light might have been lower in the past.)
- The force which causes the accelerating expansion of the universe comes from outside the universe. There is no dark energy.
- Both gravity and the expansion of the universe are caused by the same thing (
**OUTFORCE**) which means that gravity has zero effect on the expansion of the universe. - The expansion of the universe started slowly and has always been increasing.
- The expansion of the universe expands the volume of all spaces within the universe. This effect cannot be neutralized by forces because it comes from outside the universe.
- Gravitationally bound systems (things like galaxies which are not expanding like the rest of the universe) are at equilibrium with the expansion of the universe due to a velocity in the direction of the system's center of gravity equal to the so-called recession velocity.

These are the conclusions of Fourth Dimension Theory. I will explain my reasoning for all of them but, as you might guess, that will take a lot of time and space. I doubt I could get you to read all that without knowing what the end result would be which is why I give the punch-line first.

The reason for the last century of counter-intuitive physics was the over-emphasis on mathematics by Einstein and those who followed. These extremely intelligent people thought they understood the universe because they thought they understood the math of the universe which caused them to ignore the term "dimension" which was a math term (the way they used it) and followed math rules rather than physical rules.

Given this indictment, I hope that future generations of physics will emphasize both descriptive physics and mathematical physics in harmony. We should never accept descriptions without explanations based on what the math says.

That being said, there is ample opportunity to apply mathematical skills in 4DT. I know of two main areas but there will be many more I am sure.

- Waves in the surface of a four dimensional object: To my knowledge we have nothing specifically for this problem. My hope is that the mathematics of string theory will find a home here because String Theory proponents are right that the math shows much promise but wrong in their every use of the term, "dimension".
- Time Dilation: The descriptive explanation for time dilation is rather simple and intuitive. however, the math might be difficult.

I am not going to work on these mathematical models because I don't really know how.

As of this writing (March 22, 2018) I have not written the down the reasoning for the above conclusions. Thus the above model does not yet have a lot of support beyond intuition. Please stay tuned for the explanations.