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Doppler Rejection Deduction
By Tim Patry
This paper makes the case that the Big Bang Theory solves the problems of Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
The Big Bang Theory has been accepted fact ever since Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) was discovered in 1964. The Big Bang Theory was based on the nine decades old discovery of Universal Red Shift. The theory replaced the obvious explanation for this Red Shift which was the Doppler Effect.
This paper shows that the Big Bang Theory was insufficiently applied and the Doppler Effect explanation for red shift was insufficiently rejected resulting in the flawed concept of gravitationally bound systems.
The assumptions surrounding gravitationally bound systems caused Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
This paper dispels the assumption of gravitationally bound systems thereby solving Dark Matter and Dark Energy. ABSTRACT:
The Big Bang Theory proved to the world that the universe had a beginning. The theory proved that the universe started in one state and progressed to the state we see in the sky above us and in the space around us. The Big Bang Theory lies at the core of humanity’s understanding of astrophysics and cosmology and its discovery gave science an alternative to a Big Bang centered on us that preserved the Copernican Principle and the prime premise of Relativity which is that nothing moves faster than light.
However, once created and embraced by the scientific community, the Big Bang Theory was inconsistently applied to the rest of Physics due to the concept of “Gravitationally Bound Systems”. Furthermore, elements of the replaced Doppler Effect model of expansion failed to be rejected resulting in the scientific community failing to fully embrace the Big Bang Theory. These failures directly resulted in assumptions that led to the creation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
This paper will show that fully rejecting the Doppler Effect Model for expansion of the universe immediately removes the evidence for Dark Energy resolving that issue. It also invalidates the concept of Gravitationally bound systems resulting in the solution to galactic rotation curves which solves the problem of Dark Matter. Note to the Layperson
This paper is designed to be understood by all readers. It involves no advanced calculus or any other obvious barriers to entry. There are some difficult concepts, but these can be resolved with contemplation and discussion with other interested parties. Due to the sometimes-dogmatic nature of academia, the Layperson may be the most common early adopter of the model of the universe described in this paper and at some point, it may be the general public explaining to experts in academia the expansion of the universe. Note to the Expert
The concepts found in this paper are simple. Deductive reasoning is used to draw logical conclusions that contradict the accepted knowledge of decades. Due to this simplicity, the conclusions asserted in this paper should be easy to either falsify or verify. Chapter 1: Context
The evidence for the expansion of the universe comes from red shift. The light from all distant objects is red shifted and the farther away an object is, the more the photons observed from that object are shifted. Understanding the expansion of the universe begins and ends with explaining what caused the Universal Red Shift. History: The Discovery of Galaxies
Edwin Hubble discovered that the Andromeda Galaxy was outside the Milky Way in 1923 which resulted in the discovery of the existence of Galaxies in general.
Hubble continued to study galaxies and in 1929 published a paper showing that all distant galaxies (farther away than Andromeda) in the universe have a red shift. This will be referred to as Universal Red Shift in this paper and given special importance because explaining this red shift resulted in the discovery of the expansion of the universe. Misunderstandings about the mechanism of this red shift caused cascading mistaken assumptions that resulted in Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
Observation 1: All distant objects in the universe are Red Shifted. Furthermore, the farther away they are the more they are red shifted. For the Layperson: Red Shift
Red Shift is a characteristic of observed photons (light particles) where the observer knows that the photons were emitted with one wavelength but observed at a longer wavelength. Red photons have a longer wavelength than the rest of the visible spectrum so any photons of any wavelength that have been lengthened are said to be Red Shifted. Blue Shift is the inverse where photons have their wavelength shortened but the focus is on Red Shift because that is the state of all photons coming from all galaxies (and other objects) in the universe farther away than the andromeda galaxy.
When observing light from a distant source, scientists use spectroscopy to determine what elements emitted the light. Light comes from objects, objects are made of elements, and each element emits light in a specific set of frequencies that act as its signature pattern.
Spectroscopy is the field which maps out the signature wavelengths of different elements. Each element both emits and absorbs light with the same signature.
If an observer observes light from a distant star and finds the pattern for Hydrogen (very common) but finds that the part of the pattern which would normally be green is now orange, the observer will know that the photons have been moved toward the red side of the spectrum and thus Red Shifted. How Does Light Get Red Shifted?
How does the universe change a green photon into a yellow photon?
There are a few different mechanisms for Red Shifting photons known to physics but only two will be discussed in this paper. The first is the Doppler Effect and the second is Metric Expansion of Space, the mechanism of the Big Bang Theory. The focus of this paper is the Doppler Effect because this mechanism must be rejected as the explanation for Universal Red Shift.
Observation 2: The vast majority of useful Red Shift data comes from the Doppler Effect. For the Layperson: Doppler Effect
The Doppler Effect happens when there is relative motion between the source (emitter) of the light (signal) and the observer in the direction of the straight line between them.
A photon of light is a wave travelling through space. It has a wavelength which is the distance between each peak and a frequency which is the rate at which the observer observes the time between each peak.
Doppler Effect happens no matter who is in motion (emitter or observer) and only requires relative motion between the two explained as follows:
Moving Emitter Stationary Observer: The source of the signal was moving while the signal was being emitted. In the case of Red Shift the emitter was moving away. During the time the signal was being emitted the emitter moved away a little between the emission of each peak adding that small distance to the wavelength of each photon. In other words, a moving emitter modifies the signal and the stationary observer observes the modified signal and perceives Red Shifted frequency as a consequence of the relative motion.
Moving Observer Stationary Emitter: The source of the signal was stationary so the signal emitted was not adjusted. This means that an element which would normally emit a green photon would emit a green signal and the green signal would move through space toward the observer. However, if the observer is moving away with respect to the signal, then during the process of absorbing the signal they move away a little between each peak resulting in a higher observed frequency.
Conclusion: Doppler Effect is caused by a moving object emitting an adjusted (wavelength) signal or a moving observer observing a different frequency based on their motion with respect to the signal. It is an effect caused by relative motion.
Observation 3: If there is relative motion between two objects, then the Doppler Effect will cause Red / Blue Shift. (Doppler Effect IFF Relative Motion.)
If there is relative motion between two objects, then there will be Doppler Effect and that Doppler Effect will be seen as red or blue shift. If there is Doppler effect in any given instance, then there are objects in relative motion.
Conclusion: There is observed Doppler Effect if and only if (IFF) there is relative motion between the observer and the emitter of the signal at the time of emission.
In other words: If there is relative motion the observed light will be affected. If there is no shifted light, then there is no relative motion between the observer and the emitter of the light.
What caused the Universal Red Shift? Why is every photon observed from outside the local galaxy cluster apparently stretched a little longer? Why is it that the farther away a light source is, the more its light is red shifted?
The obvious answer is the Doppler Effect. The intuitive, natural, simple answer is the Doppler Effect. Every other explanation for how photons from everywhere have been lengthened is more complicated and difficult so Occam’s Razor should have made the Doppler Effect Model of the Expansion of the Universe the natural starting point of discussion. However, insofar as the history books tell it the Doppler Effect Model was never even entertained.
The history books tell of the struggle between the Big Bang Theory and the Steady State Theory and how the Big Bang Theory won out in the end due to the discovery of the Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation (CMBR) which was predicted by proponents of the Big Bang Theory and discovered by Bell Labs physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson who received the Nobel Prize for the discovery in 1978.
Metric Expansion of Space, the core model of the Big Bang Theory, became the model used to explain the Universal Red Shift in modern physics.
The Doppler Effect Model was seemingly ignored as a viable explanation for the cause of Universal Red Shift and the method of the expansion of the universe. It was apparently rejected even before it could be entertained.
Metric Expansion of Space is a great model and has served the scientific community well for decades. The problem with the modern understanding of the expansion of the universe does not lie with the Big Bang Theory itself but rather with the Doppler Effect Model.
It is the thesis of this paper that the Doppler Effect Model was incorrectly rejected. Not that its rejection was incorrect but rather that the rejection of the Doppler Effect as the cause of Universal Red Shift was INCOMPLETE. Fully rejecting the Doppler Effect Model will have profound consequences on the conceptual understanding of the expansion of the universe, but the model must first be fully understood. One Last Bit of Context: The Big Bang is Hard
The Big Bang Theory has been treated as accepted fact for decades ever since the CMBR was discovered. The problem with the Big Bang Theory is that it is not intuitive. It is hard to understand. It is difficult to form a mental picture of what Metric Expansion of Space does to photons and space. It is hard to conceptualize and imagine Metric Expansion of Space.
In contrast, the Doppler Effect Model is easy to understand. The Doppler Effect Model describes the expansion of the universe as a big bang. It is easy to understand and easy to picture. Just the words, “Big Bang” easily describe what the expansion of the universe would look like if the Doppler Effect explained the Universal Red Shift. The Doppler Effect Model is intuitive, natural, and according to all accepted scientific dogma, wrong.
It is truly tragic that the name of the theory that disproved the big bang model has the name “Big Bang.” This fact must have contributed at least a little bit to the failure to reject the Doppler Effect as the explanation for the expansion of the universe. Chapter 2: The Doppler Effect ModelConsequences of Doppler
The Doppler Effect is red shift caused by relative motion.
All distant objects are red shifted.
If that red shift is caused by the Doppler Effect that means that all distant objects are in relative motion in the direction away from Earth (the place where all the observations are made. The other option is that Earth is in motion away from all distant objects but that is impossible because all distant objects are red shifted in every direction. If Earth is in motion it would have to be moving in some direction meaning it would be moving toward something.
If Earth was moving toward something, the objects in that direction would be blue shifted because relative motion toward an object results in a blue shift. On the scale larger than the local galaxy cluster, nothing is blue shifted.
Additionally, all distant objects are red shifted the same based on distance. For example, all galaxies 10 megaparsecs (Mpc) away from the Milky Way Galaxy have the same red shift. If this red shift is caused by relative motion, then every object in any direction 10 Mpc is moving away from Earth at the same speed.
If you reverse the motion to model the motion back in time, the result would be all things originating at the location of the Earth.
If all things in the universe originated at Earth and moved away, then Earth would appear to be at the center of the universe. This is not ideal for the scientific community because it would violate the Copernican Principle.
Copernican Principle (Wikipedia): In physical cosmology, the Copernican principle states that humans, on the Earth or in the Solar System, are not privileged observers of the universe, that observations from the Earth are representative of observations from the average position in the universe.
The Copernican principle is important to cosmology because if it doesn’t hold true then the things we observe about the universe from our perspective might be different somewhere else. Additionally, religious powers might try to influence physical science the way they did in the time of Copernicus. The Copernicus Principle is an assumption that science hopes and expects to be true. It is not an observation, and it would be easily falsified if contradictory evidence was found.
If the Universal Red Shift is caused by the Doppler Effect, it would mean that there was a big bang at the location of the Earth sometime in the past and that everything exploded away from the Earth leaving the Milky Way at the center of the universe. It would also mean the Copernican Principle is False.
Relativity states that the speed of light is the highest speed in the universe and that objects cannot have a relative velocity greater than the speed of light. However, there are distant objects with extreme red shift such that if that red shift is caused by relative motion with respect to Earth, those objects are moving faster than the speed of light. This would appear to violate the principles of the Theory of Relativity.
For these reasons scientists in Edwin Hubble’s era would have been motivated to find an alternative to the Doppler Effect to explain how the light from the distant objects of the universe got red shifted. The idea that one observation destroyed both relativity and the Copernican principle would have been disturbing and to be avoided if possible. It likely could not be entertained.
Luckily, scientists came up with the Big Bang theory as an alternative and then, luckily, it was supported by evidence (CMBR) sparing the physics community from the loss of precious scientific theories and principles.
The Doppler Effect explanation for the Universal Red Shift was dodged. It was escaped. That model that was never truly entertained never had to be truly entertained. This resulted in the following flaw.
The Doppler Effect explanation for the Universal Red Shift was not rejected because it was not entertained in the first place. This is not a baseless assumption but rather the consequence of deductive reasoning because to even entertain the rejection of the Doppler Effect has extreme consequences. These consequences, once acknowledged, will result in the solutions to Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
To reject the Doppler Effect is to reject relative motion. Chapter 3: Consequences of the Doppler Effect Model
According to the Doppler Effect model for explaining Universal Red Shift, the red shift observed from distant objects far from the Milky Way Galaxy is caused by relative motion between those distant objects and observers on Earth.
Furthermore, the fact that the shift is red indicated that all distant objects have a velocity in the direction away from Earth.
In other words, the whole universe is in motion away from Earth. Consequence of Doppler
The following assumptions arise as a consequence of the Doppler Effect Model:
1. If all distant objects have a velocity vector (direction) pointing away from Earth, then they must have been accelerated to that velocity.
2. If all distant objects were accelerated in the direction away from Earth, then there must have been a force in that direction.
3. Energy was required to apply the force to all matter in the direction away from Earth.
4. All distant objects have momentum keeping them moving away from Earth.
5. Gravity applies a force on all objects that causes all objects to experience acceleration toward each other. If two objects have momentum away from each other, the gravity of the two objects will apply acceleration to oppose that momentum and decrease the velocity.
6. If all matter began close to the location of Earth and was exploded outwards, gravity opposes that momentum and is constantly acting to slow the expansion of the universe.
7. If gravity is high enough and the momentum slow enough, there should be a “Big Crunch” that drags all the things back together at the center.
8. If the momentum of the distant objects is high enough, gravity will never overcome that momentum and the universe would continue to expand forever.
9. If the velocity of the distant objects does not decrease it would mean there is some force and some Dark Energy pushing matter outward.
10. Most of the space in the universe was empty before the big explosion that blasted everything away from the location Earth now resides.
11. If the distance between two objects is continually increasing, those two objects are in relative motion away from each other and gravity is decelerating that relative motion.
12. If no red shift is observed by an observer, then the relative velocity between the observer and the object being observed is zero along the direction of the line between the two objects.
13. If relative velocity is zero between two objects, then those two objects are at rest with respect to each other.
14. The Earth is at the center of the universe because all relative motion is away from Earth. (This will be explained later.)
15. Objects can move faster than the speed of light because objects have been measured with red shifts corresponding to relative motion faster than the speed of light. Peripheral Assumptions: Gravitationally Bound Systems
The following are not a consequence of Doppler but are part of the Doppler Model. According to the Doppler Effect Model, there is no reason not to believe:
16. Gravitationally bound systems exist where the distance between Orbiting Bodies and the Center of Gravity is unchanging.
17. Expansion moves objects apart and gravity pulls objects together so naturally gravity would oppose expansion.
18. Once the expansion has been overcome a gravitationally bound system can exist where the direction of motion of any orbiting body is perpendicular to the line between the orbiting body and the center of gravity and that velocity has no velocity vector component in the direction of the center of gravity.
19. If a straight line is drawn between an observer, the center of gravity for some gravitationally bound system, and an object orbiting that center of gravity at equilibrium, the observed red shift for both the orbiting body and the center of gravity should be identical because the orbiting body has no vector velocity component on the axis going through the center of gravity and the observer. Peripheral Assumptions: Space
The following are not a consequence of Doppler but are part of the Doppler Model. According to the Doppler Effect Model, there is no reason not to believe:
20. The volume of space is constant.
21. Space cannot be created, destroyed, increased, or decreased.
22. Distance between objects can be changed through relative motion and through no other means. Chapter 4: The Consequence of Rejecting Doppler
The consequence of rejecting the Doppler Effect Model for explaining Universal Red Shift is that every one of the above listed consequences for Doppler Effect Model are false.
An observer on Earth looks at a distant galaxy, sees a red shift, and states: “That is not Doppler Effect.”
If the red shift is not Doppler Effect, then there is no Doppler Effect on the light.
If there is no Doppler Effect, then that distant object is not in relative motion with respect to the observer because if it were in relative motion we would see a Doppler Effect.
If the distant object is not in relative motion, then it is at rest with respect to the observer.
If it is at rest, it has no momentum.
If it is at rest, it has not been accelerated.
If it is at rest, no force has acted on that object.
If it is at rest, no energy was expended to create force.
If it is at rest, then there is no momentum for gravity to oppose.
Gravity has no impact on the expansion of the universe because gravity is a mechanism which causes motion through space (acceleration and velocity) while a non-doppler cause for red shift never moves matter.
If the cause of universal red shift leaves matter at rest, then it has always been at rest.
Conclusion: If the cause of the universe did not cause Doppler Effect, then the expansion of the universe has never applied any amount of force on any particle of matter, anywhere, at any time because, fundamentally, the cause of expansion does not cause motion and force causes motion. No Need for Opposing Theory
The consequences of rejecting the doppler effect are profound because they stand alonw. No other alternative needs to be put forward for these consequences to logically exist. If you point to a red shift and say, “That is not Doppler Effect”, then you are saying that object is not in relative motion because if it were in relative motion the light from that object would be red shifted due to the doppler effect.
The scientific community had a choice before any alternative to a Doppler Effect Model was found:
Doppler Effect: The cause of the expansion of the universe involves motion and all its consequences.
Not Doppler Effect: The cause of the expansion of the universe does not cause objects to be in a state of relative motion with respect to other objects.
In a model of the expansion of the universe that rejects the Doppler Effect explaining the universal red shift, all distant objects in the universe are at rest with respect to each other.
The study of physics is essentially the study of the relative motion of objects.
“What caused all light from distant objects to be red shifted?”
If the answer is not, “Doppler Effect”, then the answer is not to be found in a physics model.
If the expansion of the universe does not affect matter (by causing it to move) then it only affects space. The Solution Has Been Found (Decades Ago)
The Big Bang Theory is the accepted solution to the question of what caused the red shift from distant objects and it is a non-Doppler Model.
There is no question what caused the Universal Red Shift in modern physics because the Big Bang is established fact.
According to the Big Bang Theory, all distant objects in the universe are at rest with respect to the Milky Way Galaxy.
However, the full impact and implications of the Big Bang Theory have not yet been acknowledged let alone incorporated into cosmology and astrophysics because the full consequences of rejecting the Doppler Effect were not acknowledged. Reasons for Failure
Doppler is easy. It is intuitive. It is natural. Non-doppler is hard.
The assumptions of Doppler must be rejected in order to understand any non-doppler model. It is not natural or intuitive to do so which is why it was not done.
The good news is that fully rejecting the Doppler Effect Model for explaining Universal Red Shift solves Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Solution to Dark Energy
Dark Energy answers the question: Where does the the force expanding the universe come from?
As previously deduced, a non-Doppler explanation for the expansion of the universe has no place for any force.
Dark Energy is solved simply by rejecting the Doppler Model. Modern physics did this decades ago by accepting the Big Bang Theory explanation for the expansion of the universe. Solution to Dark Matter
The solution to Dark Energy seems less than gratifying because the solution was provided before Dark Energy was invented.
Luckily, the solution to Dark Matter is more involved though still very simple and it solves math problems which will please the academics.
The solution to Dark Matter will require an understanding of the Big Bang Theory and its model for the mechanism explaining the Universal Red Shift: Metric Expansion of Space.
CONCLUSION OF PART ONE: DOPPLER REJECTION DEDUCTION (PARTIAL)
If the universal red shift is not caused by the doppler effect, then any equation describing the expansion of the universe (i.e. the Hubble Equation) describes the state of REST in the universe.
Chapter 5: Metric Expansion of Space
The core mechanism of the Big Bang Theory is Metric Expansion of Space.
Metric Expansion of Space (MES) the volume of the universe is increasing.
The increasing volume of the universe is the entire Big Bang Theory in a nutshell.
The increasing volume of the universe explains Universal Redshift without using the Doppler Effect. History
The original inspiration for the Big Bang Theory came from the realization that if you plotted the distances between distant galaxies on a line graph there is a linear relationship between distance and the Universal Red shift. This means that if the distance between two objects is five Megaparsecs (Mpc) the red shift will have one value and two objects 10 Mpc apart will have double the red shift.
The effect of a linear relationship between distance and red shift makes it so any point on the line has the same perspective. If you select any point, all other points are moving away from that point according to the same linear relationship.
The idea that all perspectives see the same thing inspired the idea that the entire three dimensional universe is increasing in volume and all points within the universe see the world as if the rest of the world was moving away from that point.
Physically, the concept of volume of space increasing is not explained. How do you increase the volume of a space? What do you do to a space to make the volume within a set of boundaries greater or less than it was before without moving the boundaries? It makes no sense.
This paper does not solve the explanation for the cause of MES but MES is already established so this paper does not have the burden of explaining the cause of Metric Expansion of Space.
Before MES was accepted, proponents of the model made predictions including the existence of CMBR and those predictions came true which is why MES is now accepted as fact.
We cannot replicate the phenomenon of creation of volume in a laboratory. We do not understand how it works. However, we have no better explanation for observed phenomenon so it is the best theory we have.
The lack of a way to explain the cause of the increasing volume of space that is understandable because, as mentioned previously, any model of the expansion of the universe that does not involve the Doppler Effect will have to stand apart from physics as we know it. Physics exists as a set of principles that explains and describes the motion of matter. In a non-doppler model of the expansion of the universe, matter never moves.
Thus, the Big Bang Theory presented the world with a mechanism that created an effect we can understand but with no explanation of the cause. This mechanism increases the volume of space without explaining how. This mechanism increases the distance between points in space without physically moving objects at those points. This mechanism causes the metric of the space of the universe to change.Metric Expansion of Space: The Mechanism of the Big Bang Theory
As described repeatedly, the mechanism of the Big Bang Theory involves nothing resembling a “Bang”.
The name of the theory (“Big Bang”) describes a phenomenon that is exactly the opposite for the actual mechanism described in the theory. The name is a tragedy. A story of misinformation that may be the reason that this paper was not written decades ago.
This sentence will be the last time in this paper that the words “Big Bang” will be used. From now on the mechanism of “Metric Expansion of Space” will be the focus.HUBBLES LAW
Hubble’s Law describes the expansion of the universe using the equation: Rv = H x d
This equation describes the change in distance over time between two objects in the universe based on the distance between them. The farther apart two objects are, the more the distance between them increases.
d: Distance between two objects
H: Hubble Constant: Approximately 70 kilometers per second
Rv: Recession velocity: The increase in distance over time.
Note that the name of the “Recession Velocity” is a incorrect. A velocity in physics is a vector value for relative motion with a magnitude and direction. Acceleration causes velocity and force causes acceleration.
As previously established, this equation cannot describe motion because the equation describes the expansion of the universe without any motion on the part of objects in the universe. Thus, the mathematical model that describes the expansion of the universe must describe the state of REST in the universe.
DOPPLER REJECTION DEDUCTION: The state of REST in the universe is described by Hubble’ Law in the equation: REST = H x d. REST in physics does not equal change in distance over change in time = 0 as previously believed. H x d = REST. Any deviation from this equation describes a state of relative motion with all the physics and Doppler Effect that goes with real motion.
This modified definition of REST will solve dark matter.CHAPTER 6: Understanding Metric Expansion of SpaceNOTE: Metric Expansion of Space Seems Like Magic
Metric Expansion of Space increases the volume of space.
That increasing volume does not move matter.
There is no explanation of how this happens.
Definition of Magic in the context of Physical Science: A phenomenon without a cause.
Increasing the volume of a space without moving the objects within that space and without knowing what causes the increasing volume is a difficult mechanism to understand because it has to be treated as magic. Physical scientists do not know what causes metric expansion of space or how it works. They just know that the model works to explain CMBR, universal red shift, and many other phenomenon.
Metric Expansion of Space is not magic because we must assume that there exists an explanation even if we have not discovered it yet. Therefore, while the mechanism will seem like magic when you are trying to understand and picture in your mind the things that are happening in the universe, please remain grounded in the reality that physical scientists must always assume that an explanation exists and will eventually be discovered. Metric Expansion of Space: What it Looks Like
Metric Expansion of Space is the Increasing volume of a space.
To picture this, it is helpful to use boundaries.
According to our best understanding of the universe today, there are no known boundaries to the universe which is why it is difficult to picture the mechanism operating on the universe as a whole.
To aid understanding a series of analogies will now be presented: The Map Analogy
Imagine a map of the local area of the universe which includes the super-cluster we occupy and the nearby superclusters.
The distances between all clusters and between most galaxies are increasing but nothing is moving. Over time, the only thing changing on that map is the legend. What was once one light year will become two light years over time. Moving forward in time, one parsec becomes two, and two becomes four. There is theoretically no limit to the amount of expansion possible in the future.
Moving back in time, two parsecs become one. One parsec becomes a light year. One light year becomes much shorter until an actual limit is reached. According to Metric Expansion of Space there is a limit to how far back time can go.
If you look far enough into the past, the distance between objects becomes smaller than their current radius which is when things get really interesting. The Bag of Holding Analogy
The bag of holding is a Dungeons and Dragons item where the volume inside the bag is greater than boundaries of the bag.
The Metric Expansion of Space literally describes the same thing as a bag of holding.
If you define cubic volume of space using a boundary in the space in the early universe using superclusters as boundary markers, the volume of space within that boundary is increasing and has been increasing since the beginning of time. Those superclusters never moved. At one time the volume of space defined by that boundary was one cubic parsec. Later, the volume was one cubic megaparsec.
The boundary never moved. The superclusters defining the boundary have been at rest with respect to each other from the beginning of time. Still, the volume within the boundaries increased. Tin Can Analogy
Imagine a can of Pepsi (or your beverage of choice).
Imagine that the volume of space within that can was increasing over time. At some point, the volume of space within the can would be one cubic kilometer. The distance between the particles of beverage would increase until there would be substantial distance between the molecules.
In our universe, the molecules represent galaxies or superclusters.
In the early universe there was no distance between galaxies. Like molecules of Pepsi in a can, the matter of the early universe was close together. There was no where for the matter to go because the volume of the universe was smaller.
When one thinks of expansion, one thinks of densely packed particles moving outward into empty space.
The early universe had no empty space according to the model. Metric Expansion of Space was the creation of the space that did not formerly exist. Increasing the volume of the universe created distance between all particles and that process never stopped. The Cubed Universe Analogy
Imagine the early universe as a continuous homogenous fluid like the beverage in the can or the air in the room you occupy.
Now imagine that space given boundaries such that each cube of that space contains the amount of matter that goes into the average supercluster.
In the beginning, each cube was full of stuff.
Over time, the volume within each cube increased. Matter clumped together due to gravity and clumps started orbiting other clumps due to gravity until eventually clumps of matter formed stars, clumps of stars formed galaxies, clumps of galaxies formed galaxy clusters, and clumps of galaxy clusters formed superclusters.
In the beginning, the matter that formed one supercluster was physically next to the matter of another galaxy cluster. Particles of the matter that formed one galaxy cluster literally bounced off the particles that would for a different galaxy cluster. Those two sets of matter that were once essentially touching are now light-years apart.
Our universe is considered homogenous, so this analogy is not farfetched.
The creation of volume in the universe due to the Metric Expansion of Space does not move matter. If it did, we would see a corresponding Doppler Effect and we do not.
However, the edges of superclusters that were once toughing war now far apart.
Picture each supercluster as a sphere within its cubic boundary.
Over time, the edge of each sphere gets farther and farther away from the edge of the cube.
Over time, the sphere representing the supercluster occupies less and less of the total volume of its cube.
The boundaries and the centers of all the superclusters are at rest with respect to each other.
Corrected for motion, a display of the boundaries and center of the superclusters would only show change in the legend showing the scale of the model. That and a change in the distance between the edge of the supercluster and the boundary. Chapter 7: The Solution to Dark Matter
A model that uses continual scaling to show objects at rest with respect to each other at rest will show the edge of a gravitationally bound system to be in motion. This is the key to solving dark matter.
The expansion of the universe caused by Metric Expansion of Space (MES) causes no motion, acceleration, or momentum. Thus, all the object in the universe, on the scale of the universe, are at rest with respect to each other.
It is easy to model this expansion over time and visualize the process. Just map out all relevant celestial objects as points and then change nothing but the scale of the model as shown by the legend. Such a model would only show changes over time to the meaning of distance on the legend and no change would occur with regards to the relative locations of celestial objects in space.
Such a model truthfully shows the real motion in the universe.
If REST = Increasing distance over time = Hubble’s Constant times distance, then any variation from that equation = Relative Motion.
The key to proving this theory will be to find the motion of by orbiting objects at equilibrium. The fact that this velocity vector causes a doppler effect should hasten the process of confirmation. Flat Rotation Curves: The Evidence of Dark Matter
The concept of dark matter came about because of the observation of flat rotation curves for speed and distance of objects orbiting the center of galaxies. I will explain all this.
To understand flat rotation curves as a problem, when was first understand basic principles of orbital physics.
When a light object in space orbits a heavy object, the light object is pulled towards the heavier object by gravity. This is an oversimplification and the light object also pulls on the heavy object but for the purpose of obtaining a mental picture of how orbital physics works, we will focus on a light object orbiting heavy object. For example, the earth orbits the sun and the sun orbits the center of our Galaxy.
The orbiting object, or light object, has mass and velocity which gives it momentum.
The gravity of the heavier object at the center, let's call it the center of gravity, constantly accelerates the orbiting object toward the center of gravity. The more momentum the orbiting object has, the more gravity is needed to accelerate it in order to change its direction to keep it moving in a circle around the center of gravity rather than flying off. If the object is too heavy or going too fast it should escape the gravity of the center of gravity because the acceleration of gravity does not turn it enough to keep it in that circle.
Gravity gets weaker the farther away an object is. Thus, the farther away and orbiting object is the slower it must go because if the momentum is too high it will just escape. Some good examples are the planets in our solar system because the farther away a planet is the slower it orbits.
When an object first enters the gravitational field of a heavy object with great gravity, the orbit is unstable and the distance between the orbiting object and the center of gravity can change as the orbiting object orbits in an elliptical path.
It is assumed that, at equilibrium, the orbiting object follows A circular path around the center of gravity. The orbiting object has a constant speed and its velocity at all times is perpendicular to the line between the orbiting object on the center of gravity.
Equilibrium is the point in time where all the changes have already been done. This is the time where all forces equal out and the orbiting object is not accelerating or decelerating, not moving toward or away from the center of gravity and the only change is caused by the constant force of gravity perpetually changing the direction of the orbiting object so that each revolution it arrives at the same point where it started.
The existing model of orbital physics makes logical sense because it assumes that the distance between the orbiting object and the center of gravity never changes. If the distance did change the orbiting object would not be at equilibrium.Flat Rotation Curves
The issue of dark matter came about when scientists plotted all the stars in the Galaxy on a graph in terms of velocity and distance from the center of gravity.
Scientists expected to find that the farther away an object was from the center of gravity the slower it would orbit. For example, if two identical stars were orbiting the center of our Galaxy but one was close to the center and one was far away from the center, the one far away with the greater mass should be moving far slower.
Plotted on a graph this would mean that close objects have high velocity and for objects have low velocity resulting in a slope downward. Any divergence from the slope would prove that the scientific models of our universe are incorrect because the math should result in accurate predictions if the models are correct.
What scientists found is that the speed of distant objects is the same as that of closer objects. This doesn't hold for very close to the center of gravity but for objects in medium to long range distance from the center of gravity the rotation curve is flat meaning two objects with the same mass could be orbiting at the same velocity the one is much farther away than the other. If this was the case though, then our models of orbital physics are incorrect.
Astrophysicists would have gladly changed the model if they could think of a way but there was no factor, phenomenon, or factor that had not been considered. Because scientists could not think of a way to change the orbital physics model, they instead introduced a new factor. This factor was dark matter.Dark Things
“Dark” is an interesting phenomenon in physics because it represents a hole in the mathematical model.
Dark energy is energy that the mathematical model tells us exists because if it did not the model would break. It is dark because we have not yet found the physical evidence for the thing which the mathematical model tells us is there.
Similarly, dark matter is matter that should exist within galaxies, galactic clusters, and super clusters because if it does not exist then there is simply no explanation for orbital physics we observe. Dark matter is “dark” because we assume it exists even though we cannot find it and we don't know what it is. It fills the gap in the mathematical model.
If there was not a gap in the mathematical model, there would be no dark energy and no dark matter because the evidence for these things is negative meaning there are observed phenomena with no physical explanation that can be incorporated into the mathematical model.Resolving the Dark
The purpose of part one of this paper was to establish the principle That the expansion of the universe does not involve relative motion in any way and therefore does not involve physics principles such as velocity, momentum, force, acceleration, and energy. By eliminating energy as a concept from the cause of the expansion of the universe, dark energy was eliminated and therefore solved.
If we know for a fact that metric expansion of space does not cause relative motion Do not need to explain relative motion using dark energy.
Similarly, metric expansion of space solves dark matter by explaining flat rotation curves both logically and mathematically eliminating the gap in the model and resolving dark matter.
According to Hubble’s law, the distance between all points in space is increasing according to the equation: Re = H x d
Re = Rest Expansion
H = Hubble Constant
d = Distance between the two points in space
The hard part for current academics in the field of physics and astrophysics is the fact that, Under the effects of metric expansion of space, increasing distance between objects over time is not relative motion.
When we look at a distant object and we see it greatly redshifted, we can ask ourselves what caused that redshift? The answer is: “Not Doppler effect.” This is how we know that rest expansion (Re) is the true definition of the state of rest in our universe.
If the distance between two objects is increasing according to the Hubble equation there is no relative motion.
If the distance between two objects diverges from the Hubble equation, then the two objects are not at rest.
Thus, the true impact that this paper should have on humanities mathematical model of the universe is that the definition of rest in the universe must be the Hubble equation.
As we will see next, defining rest as the Hubble equation is the missing factor that will solve orbital physics on large scales and fill the gap that resulted in dark matter.
The Equilibrium Velocity Vector
The First core assumption of orbital physics for a gravitationally bound system at equilibrium is that the distance between the center of gravity in the orbiting body does not change.
The second core assumption of orbital physics is that, at equilibrium, the velocity vector of the orbiting body has no velocity vector component in the direction of the center of gravity because, by definition, if it did have such a velocity vector component the orbiting body would be either moving closer to or farther away from the center of gravity which would mean that it's not at equilibrium.
The second assumption is false Because of the definition of rest in a universe experiencing metric expansion of space. If the distance between the orbiting object and the center of gravity never changes, then according to the definition of rest the orbiting body is not at rest with respect to the center of gravity because the distance between the orbiting object and the center of gravity is not increasing at the rate of the Hubble constant times the distance between the objects.
If the distance between the orbiting object and the center of gravity is constant, that means the orbiting object has a velocity vector component in the direction of the center of gravity equal to the Hubble equation.
The Hubble equation scales by distance meaning that the farther away an orbiting object is from the center of gravity the greater the velocity vector component in the direction of the center of gravity.
This is a good sign because if there is no dark matter then whatever factor that explains flat rotation curves has to scale according to the distance between the orbiting object and the center of gravity.Understanding the Equilibrium Velocity Vector
It takes some time to get used to the idea that an object orbiting a center of gravity with a constant distance from that center is actually moving toward the center even though the distance never changes when the system is at equilibrium.
Here's a helpful analogy.
Imagine a Galaxy inside a cube such that the edges of the Galaxy touch the edge of the cube.
According to metric expansion of space, the volume of that cube is increasing over time. After sufficient time the volume of the cube will cube (mathematically) meaning that The volume of the cube will multiply by 8 resulting in a double in the length of a side of the cube.
The cube is an arbitrarily defined boundary but according to metric expansion of space, all points on the surface of that cube are at rest with respect to each other.
The Galaxy within the cube is a gravitationally bound system at equilibrium meaning that the distance between the center of gravity and the furthest orbiting objects remains constant.
What happens to the distance between the edge of the Galaxy and the surface of the cube?
The answer is that the distance between the edge of the Galaxy and the surface of the cube increases over time. This change in distance over time is caused by real motion According to Hubble’s rest equation meaning the orbiting objects at the edge of the Galaxy have a vector velocity component away from surface of the cube.
In other words, even though distance remains constant between orbiting object and center of gravity, those orbiting objects have to move through space at a constant rate in order to maintain a constant distance between the center of gravity and orbiting object. In other words, equilibrium is impossible without a velocity vector component in the direction of the center of gravity in an expanding universe under metric expansion space.Adjusting the Equations of Orbital Physics
Any equation for orbital physics is incorrect if it does not define rest in terms of the Hubble equation.
The effect is trivial for small gravitationally bound systems such as the solar system because the Hubble constant scales with megaparsecs and the distance between orbiting objects in our solar system and the center of gravity, the sun, is only a small fraction of a megaparsec.
However, on scales that includes galaxies, galaxy clusters, and galactic superclusters, the definition of rest will have an ever increasing impact on The orbital physics models.
All predictions will be incorrect to the degree that an object has an equilibrium velocity vector that has not been accounted for because the direction of the momentum of any orbiting object is incorrectly calculated to the degree that the equilibrium vector velocity is not taken into account.
The first and obvious impact is galactic rotation curves. Once modeled, the equilibrium velocity vector should resolve the issue of flat rotation curves.
Another issue is the great attractor. This author suspects that the evidence for the great attractor as a phenomenon on the scale of superclusters in our universe may be caused by misunderstanding measurements and redshifts caused by the Doppler effect because all objects experiencing any sort of orbital physics will have a velocity vector component in the direction of the center of gravity that current physics has not accounted for. Adjusting Measurements
When astrophysicists look at a distant Galaxy and calculate the vector velocities of orbiting objects they look for points of maximum redshift or blue shift as indicators of velocity. However, they assume that the objects with maximum redshift or blueshift along an arm of a Galaxy are moving perpendicular to the line between the object and the center of gravity. This is a flawed assumption as mentioned before and the farther away from the center the greater the flaw.
Once the equilibrium vector of velocity is incorporated into the models the galactic rotation curves will have to be adjusted because the direction of maximum red shift or blue shift is not perpendicular to the line between the orbiting object and the center of gravity.Finding Evidence of Equilibrium Velocity
If you draw a line between our solar system and the center of the Milky Way Galaxy extending outward from the center, you will find many stars along that line orbiting the center of our Galaxy. Every single one of those stars should have a velocity vector component in the direction of the center of the Galaxy equal to the Hubble equation.
That velocity vector component will result in a red shift or blue shift.
If we look outward from the center of the Galaxy along that line each star should have a blue shift because we are on the line between those other stars and the center of the Galaxy and we are closer so there's a velocity vector component in our direction equal to the Hubble equation.
This should make the calculation of Hubble’s constant quite simple. There's been some controversy over the methods used to calculate Hubble’s constant using other methods but, according to metric expansion of space and the principles derived from the model, calculating the value of the Hubble constant should be a simple matter of measurement.On Gravity
One of the core assumptions that have driven modern cosmology and astrophysics is the idea that gravity can somehow counteract the expansion of the universe.
According to explanations I've read, physicist theorized that the force of gravity overcomes the force pushing objects apart therefore nullifying the expansion of space within gravitationally bound systems.
I simply do not understand this. While it is true that gravity pulls objects together, gravity is a force that moves objects through space toward each other. Gravity causes relative motion, but metric expansion space definitively does not.
Metric expansion of space does not move objects but rather creates space between objects. Gravity does not destroy space which means that metric expansion of space and gravity each influence completely separate aspects of physical reality.
Gravity and metric expansion of space have no logical interaction that I can understand. I knowledge I'm not an academic in the field though so if there is something I am misunderstanding I would be delighted to learn more.Conclusion
The working title of this paper is the Doppler Rejection Deduction. The reason for this title lies in the logical path.
The paper starts with a hypothesis that the Doppler effect explains the universal redshift that is the evidence of the expansion of the universe.
The paper then entertains the rejection of this hypothesis and finds that, through deductive reasoning, the rejection of the Doppler effect as an explanation for the expansion of the universe results in an explanation of the expansion of the universe without relative motion.
The deductive reasoning is the reason for the term “Deduction” in the title.
Once relative motion is excluded from the process of the expansion of the universe, it follows that the cause of the expansion of the universe exerts no force on matter Because if it exerted a force that would result in acceleration and therefore velocity and therefore relative motion and therefore a Doppler effect which has been explicitly rejected.
Once it is established that the cause of the expansion of the universe does not exert a force on matter, it follows that dark energy does not exist because the evidence for dark energy is the assumed force upon matter causing expansion of the universe. Once we realize this assumption is false then the evidence for dark energy evaporates in the case for dark energy is no more.
Part one of this paper dealt with the issue of the Doppler effect.
Part two of the paper explored the current model which is that metric expansion of space is the cause of the expansion of the universe.
Metric expansion of space is caused by the creation of volume everywhere at all times within the universe. This creation of volume increases the distance between objects by creating distance between them meaning that metric expansion space never moves matter from the point in space at which it sits but rather changes the relationship between those points by adding more distance. This allows the distance between objects to increase while those two objects remain in a state of rest with respect to each other.
By applying the how will equation of expansion to the concept of rest pause logically and mathematically we can resolve the issue of flat rotation curves for galaxies and Galaxy clusters by mathematically and logically applying Hubble’s law as the definition of rest in our universe.
Explaining galactic rotation curves remove the primary evidence for dark matter which was the unexplained rotation curves.
Thus, this author asserts that the principles of metric expansion space and the logical consequences of rejecting the Doppler effect as the explanation for redshift on the cosmic scale results in the solution two dark matter and dark energy without invoking any new scientific evidence that was not public knowledge and accepted by the scientific community before this paper was written.
Final Note: Many of the concepts discussed in this paper have been better explained by others. Please do additional research to better understand the concepts referenced in this paper.